EM Journal Update Journal Reviews

Tags: , , September 4th, 2018 Leave a Comment

STONE Study – Efficacy of Tamsulosin in Ureteral Colic

Ureteric (renal) colic is a common, painful condition encountered in the Emergency Department (ED). Sustained contraction of smooth muscle in the ureter as a kidney stone passes the length of the ureter leads to pain. The majority of stones will pass spontaneously (i.e. without urologic intervention). For over a decade, calcium channel blockers (i.e. nifedipine) and,
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Tags: , August 30th, 2018 Leave a Comment

Comparison of IM Midazolam, Olanzapine, Ziprasidone and Haloperidol for Sedation

Emergency providers frequently care for agitated patients ranging from restlessness to verbally and physically aggressive. Agitation is a symptom, not a diagnosis and these patients require careful evaluation to rule in or out serious medical conditions. Unfortunately, the agitation itself often obstructs this evaluation and places the patient, other patients and staff at risk. While verbal de-escalation can be effective in select cases,
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Cervical Spine Evaluation and Clearance in the Intoxicated Patient

Alcohol and drug intoxication is common in trauma patients and a significant proportion of cervical spine (c-spine) injuries occur in patients with intoxication. A standard approach to both intoxicated and sober patients with suspected c-spine injury in many trauma centers includes the placement of a rigid cervical collar for spinal immobilization until the c-spine can be “cleared.”  Even after a negative CT,
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Tags: , , August 16th, 2018 Leave a Comment

MgSO4 in Pediatric Asthma – Meta-Analysis

Acute asthma exacerbations are a common presentation to pediatric emergency departments (EDs). Standard treatment with inhaled beta agonists and corticosteroids are often sufficient in mild asthma but can fall short in the treatment of moderate to severe exacerbations. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) has long been touted as an adjunct treatment due to its bronchodilatory properties (both in its intravenous (IV) and nebulized form).
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Procalcitonin Utility in Acute Respiratory Illnesses (ARI)

In patients with an acute respiratory illness (ARI), it is often difficult to determine whether a bacterial infection is the underlying etiology and whether antibiotics are warranted. Excess antibiotic use carries risk of bacterial resistance, medical costs, and adverse drug effects. However, underuse of antibiotics risks inadequate treatment and progression of disease. In the setting of a bacterial infection,
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Esmolol in Refractory Ventricular Fibrillation

Refractory ventricular fibrillation (VF) is very difficult to manage. Up until recently, emergency providers were limited to defibrillation and delivery of high quality CPR as well as amiodarone administration. However, a couple of recent trials have given us food for thought about two possible additional treatments. The first treatment, dual sequential defibrillation has been investigated in retrospective case series and has shown potential for benefit.
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Tags: , , , July 19th, 2018 Leave a Comment

ACEP Venous Thromboembolism Clinical Policy 2018

The evaluation and management of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the Emergency Department (ED) is fraught with questions: who should I evaluate, who should get a d-dimer, what should the d-dimer threshold be etc. Answers, unfortunately, are far less common. Due to the enormous volume of literature produced on the topic, it can be difficult for individual clinicians to incorporate all of the information into a comprehensive approach.
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Tags: , , July 12th, 2018 Leave a Comment

High-Flow Nasal Canula in Bronchiolitis

This analysis was originally posted on REBEL EM here

Bronchiolitis is an acute inflammatory injury of the distal smaller airways, most commonly caused by viral infections.  There have been a host of medications studied in the treatment of bronchiolitis, including steroids, albuterol, epinephrine, and  inhaled hypertonic saline, with none proving to be effective in treatment. 
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