Long-term oral beta-blocker use decreases mortality after myocardial infarction (MI). Our guidelines recommend initiation of this within 24 hours of acute MI. The benefit of IV beta-blockade is less clear.
Acute dyspnea is a common Emergency Department complaint; in 2003 this chief complaint comprised about 3.5% of more than 115 million emergency department visits nationwide. A subset of these patients will present in respiratory distress,